Know what is Hyperglycemia and how it is related to type 2 diabetes, symptoms, causes, treatment and prevention.
It is a well-known fact that the blood sugar level increases in diabetes. But when the amount of glucose in the blood increases too much and remains the same for a long time, this condition is called hyperglycemia. Although it is related to diabetes, sometimes hyperglycemia can be due to other health reasons as well. If not treated early, it can prove to be very fatal.
What is Hyperglycemia?
Before we start it is important to know what is Hyperglycemia? When the quantity of glucose in the blood increases much and remains the same for a long time, then the condition is called hyperglycemia. It can cause serious health problems in type 2 diabetes patients. Many things can be responsible for hyperglycemia such as excessive carbohydrate intake and very little physical activity. Regular blood sugar testing is a must for type 2 diabetes patients.
What are the symptoms of Hyperglycemia?
Some of the common symptoms of hyperglycemia may include:
- Frequent urge to urinate
- Wounds taking time to heal
- Blurry vision
- Feeling too much thirsty
- Weight loss
- Increased urination at night
- Vaginal and skin infections
If you notice any of these symptoms of hyperglycemia, it is important to check your blood glucose level immediately. Because if it is not treated promptly, serious problems like damage to the eyes, kidneys and heart, or nerve damage can occur.
It may take a few days to weeks to show the symptoms mentioned above. The more days it is not treated, the more serious the problem can be. Your doctor can advise you about how high blood sugar levels can be controlled.
What are the causes of Hyperglycemia?
Hyperglycemia can be a result of many conditions like :
- Consuming Excessive carbohydrates
- Type 2 diabetes, due to which your body is unable to use natural insulin effectively.
- Not taking the correct dose of glucose level lowering drug
- Getting any kind of infection
- Inactive lifestyle
- Intake of steroids
What are the treatments available for Hyperglycemia?
There are several ways to treat hyperglycemia. These treatments are mentioned below:
Regular Glucose level monitoring
To manage diabetes, it is very important to monitor glucose level regularly. Maintain the record of blood sugar in some notebook or you can use some blood sugar tracking app. This will help the doctor to make the right plan for your treatment. By monitoring the blood sugar, you get to know when its range is increasing, you can control it before it worsens.
Be physically active
Exercise is the best way to keep blood sugar levels under control. If you are undergoing treatment, due to which the insulin level increases, then consult your doctor for exercise type and time. If someone has undergone nerve damage or eye problems, check with your doctor about what kind of exercise should be done.
For people who have diabetes for a long time and are taking insulin therapy, it is important to consult a doctor regarding the limitations of exercise. If your glucose level is more than 240 mg / dL, the doctor will perform a urine test to check the presence of ketones. Exercise is not recommended if you have ketones (when there is not enough insulin in the body). When you exercise with ketones present in the body, it can increase the blood glucose level a lot. Although this is rarely seen in type 2 diabetes, it is still good to be cautious.
Improve eating habits
Talk to a dietician or nutritionist about healthy and tasty food selections so that you can avoid high carbohydrate intake, as it increases blood glucose levels.
Evaluation of treatment
Depending on your personal health history, the doctor may reconsider the course of treatment. It may involve changing the timing, dosage and type of your diabetes medicine. Never change your medication dose or medicine without consulting a doctor.
What complications can arise due to Hyperglycemia
If severe hyperglycemia is left untreated, some complexities can occur which are mentioned below
- Eye disease like retinopathy
- Skin problems like bacterial and fungal infections
- Kidney failure
- Nerve damage(neuropathy)
- Cardiovascular disease
- Kidney damage (nephropathy)
- Feet problems due to poor blood flow or nerve damage
What happens if hyperglycemia is not treated?
Hyperglycemia can be very serious if not treated in time or for a long time. Therefore, it is important to get immediate treatment as soon as symptoms are seen. If you do not get treatment for hyperglycemia, then you can suffer from ketoacidosis, which is also be called a diabetic coma. Ketoacidosis occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body and without insulin, your body cannot use glucose as energy.
In such a situation, the body breaks down fats for energy and the waste that is formed when fat is broken is called ketones. The body is unable to tolerate its overdose and tries to excrete it through urine, but it cannot completely remove it and ketones continue to build up in the blood, which can lead to a condition of ketoacidosis.
Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and therefore requires immediate treatment. Symptoms of ketoacidosis include can be as follows
- Dry mouth
- Nausea or vomiting
- The sweet smell in the breath
Take the advice of your doctor about what should be done in this situation.
How to prevent Hyperglycemia?
Hyperglycemia can be avoided or prevented from becoming serious by properly managing diabetes and monitoring blood glucose levels carefully.
Get blood sugar regularly
Check your blood glucose level daily and keep a record. Every time you visit a doctor, share this information with them. The doctor can analyse if you need any change in treatment or not.
Manage intake of Carbohydrates
Be aware of the number of carbohydrates you consume with every meal and try to limit to what the doctor or dietician has prescribed. Excessive intake of carbs can prove dangerous.
Maintain timings of meals and medicine
When your sugar level goes up ask the doctor beforehand about what you should do in such a situation. Always take the medicine on time and also keep in mind the timing of your meals and snacks.
Use of medical identification
You can use a medical bracelet for identification. It is specially made for diabetes patient which sends an alert in the event of an emergency.
Keep weight in control
It is very important to have a healthy weight and to maintain it. It is also important to be physically active. Do some kind of physical activity like yoga or workout regularly. Please consult a doctor about the kind of exercise to follow.
Avoid smoking and alcohol
Stay away from smoking and alcohol completely. If you are addicted to alcohol, then gradually reduce its quantity. Alcohol can suddenly increase your blood sugar level or reduce it to a dangerous state.
You can now understand about Hyperglycemia, its common symptoms, causes, treatments and prevention . Taking care of symptoms is an easy way to prevent this condition that can turn dangerous if not treated for a long time.
Part of the Diet for Weight Loss Editorial Team 2021